Specifications for your Z77X-UD5H (1.0) motherboard:
The problem might be with the VIA usb 3.0 hub drivers not being initialized.
Chipset + 2 VIA USB Hubs:
Up to 8 USB 3.0/2.0 ports (4 ports on the back panel, 4 ports available through the internal USB headers)
- Up to 2 USB 3.0/2.0 ports (available through the internal USB headers)
- Up to 6 USB 2.0/1.1 ports (2 ports on the back panel, 4 ports available through the internal USB headers)
- In Windows XP, the Intel USB 3.0 ports and VIA USB HUB can support up to USB 2.0 transfer speed.
- Due to a Windows 7 limitation, please connect your USB device(s) to the USB 2.0/1.1 port(s) before the Intel USB 3.0 controller driver is installed.
Try connecting your keyboard to one of the Intel chipset's usb 2.0/1.1 (only) connectors to see if this will fix your problem.
It looks like the two red usb ports on the rear panel are the Intel usb 2.0/1.1 ports.